Milestones in Cardiology



1628-William Harvey, an English Physician,

         first describes blood circulation.

1706-Raymond de Vieussens, a French anatomy professor,

         first describes the structure of the heart's chambers and vessels.

1733-Stephen Hales, an English clergyman and scientist,

         first measures blood pressure.

1816-Rene T. H. Laennec, a French physician,

          invents the stethoscope.

1903-Willem Einthoven, a Dutch physiologist,

          develops the electrocardiograph.

1912-James B. Herrick, an American physician,

         first describes heart disease resulting from hardening of the arteries.

1938-Robert E. Gross, an American surgeon,

          performs first heart surgery.

1951-Charles Hufnagel, an American surgeon,

         develops a plastic valve to repair an aortic valve.

1952-F. John Lewis, an American surgeon,

         performs first successful open heart surgery.

1953-John H. Gibbon, an American surgeon,

         first uses a mechanical heart and blood purifier.

1961-J. R. Jude, an American cardiologist, leads a team

         performing the first external cardiac massage to restart a heart.

1965-Michael DeBakey and Adrian Kantrowitz, American surgeons,

         implant mechanical devices to help a diseased heart.

1967-Christiaan Barnard, a South African surgeon,

         performs the first whole heart transplant from one person to another.

1982-Willem DeVries, an American surgeon,

         implants a permanent artificial heart,

         designed by Robert Jarvik, an American physician, into a patient.